What Are You Talking About?

How can it be that you and I can spend an identical day and, at the end of that day, see our experience in different, perhaps vastly different ways? We can both read and listen to the same news stories, travel identical routes with the same sights and sounds and converse with the same people about the same subjects. Yet, if we give as accurate a report as we can about the events of that day, those reports may sound as if they originated on two separate planets.

We will each have experienced our day through the lens of our unique worldview and the results, although identical from a third-person perspective, will be very different for each of us. It is vitally important to know and to remember this when we find ourselves embroiled in a “difference of opinion” with someone. If another person does not experience the world as I do, how can I expect that other person to agree on a shared experience of that world? I cannot.

*start from – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_view#Development – and follow links

A worldview is an ontology, or a descriptive model of the world. It should comprise these six elements:
1. An explanation of the world
2. A futurology, answering the question “Where are we heading?”
3. Values, answers to ethical questions: “What should we do?”
4. A methodology, or theory of action: “How should we attain our goals?”
5. An epistemology, or theory of knowledge: “What is true and false?”
6. An etiology. A constructed world-view should contain an account of its own “building blocks,” its origins and construction.

NB: Ontology is the philosophical study of the nature of being, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations. Traditionally listed as a part of the major branch of philosophy known as metaphysics, ontology deals with questions concerning what entities exist or can be said to exist, and how such entities can be grouped, related within a hierarchy, and subdivided according to similarities and differences.

1. An explanation is a set of statements constructed to describe a group of facts which clarifies the causes, context, and consequences of those facts.
This description may establish rules or laws, and may clarify the existing ones in relation to any objects, or phenomena examined. The components of an explanation can be implicit, and be interwoven with one another.
An explanation is often underpinned by an understanding that is represented by different media such as music, text, and graphics. Thus, an explanation is subjected to interpretation, and discussion.
In scientific research, explanation is one of the purposes of research, e.g., exploration and description. Explanation is a way to uncover new knowledge, and to report relationships among different aspects of studied phenomena. Explanations have varied explanatory power.

2. Futures studies (also called futurology) is the study of postulating possible, probable, and preferable futures and the worldviews and myths that underlie them. There is a debate as to whether this discipline is an art or science. In general, it can be considered as a branch of the social sciences and parallel to the field of history. In the same way that history studies the past, futures studies considers the future. Futures studies (colloquially called “futures” by many of the field’s practitioners) seeks to understand what is likely to continue and what could plausibly change. Part of the discipline thus seeks a systematic and pattern-based understanding of past and present, and to determine the likelihood of future events and trends. Unlike the physical sciences where a narrower, more specified system is studied, futures studies concerns a much bigger and more complex world system. The methodology and knowledge are much less proven as compared to natural science or even social science like sociology, economics, and political science.

3. Ethics, also known as moral philosophy, is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct. The term comes from the Greek word ethos, which means “character”. Ethics may be divided into four major areas of study:
Meta-ethics about the theoretical meaning and reference of moral propositions and how their truth values (if any) may be determined;
Normative ethics, about the practical means of determining a moral course of action;
Descriptive ethics, also known as comparative ethics, is the study of people’s beliefs about morality;
Applied ethics, about how moral outcomes can be achieved in specific situations;

4. A methodology is usually a guideline system for solving a problem, with specific components such as phases, tasks, methods, techniques and tools. It can be defined also as follows:
1. “the analysis of the principles of methods, rules, and postulates employed by a discipline”;
2. “the systematic study of methods that are, can be, or have been applied within a discipline”;
3. “the study or description of methods”.
A methodology can be considered to include multiple methods, each as applied to various facets of the whole scope of the methodology. The research can be divided between two parts, they are qualitative research and quantitative research.

5. Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of lnowledge. It questions what knowledge is, how it is acquired, and to what extent it is possible for a given subject or entity to be known.
Much of the debate in this field has focused on analysing the nature of knowledge and how it relates to connected notions such as truth, belief, and justification.
The term was introduced by the Scottish philosopher James Frederick Ferrier , (1808–1864). The field is sometimes referred to as the theory of knowledge.

6. Etiology is the study of causation, or origination. The word is most commonly used in medical and philosophical theories, where it is used to refer to the study of why things occur, or even the reasons behind the way that things act, and is used in philosophy, physics, psychology, government, geography, spatial analysis,medicine, theology,and biology in reference to the causes of various phenomena. An etiological myth is a myth intended to explain a name or create a mythic history for a place or family.

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